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Arisarum simorrhinum
Arum family (Araceae)


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Arisarum simorrhinum is species of flowering plant of the family Araceae. It is endemic to the western Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula and northwest Maghreb).

Description

Arisarum simorrhinum is a perennial plant, up to 30 centimetres (12 in) in height, with aphilous stems (without leaves), stained with purple, usually shorter than the leaves. Sagittal limb leaves, with long petiole. Inflorescence (spathe) protected by a bract with a tube of 3–1.5 centimetres (1.18–0.59 in), wide at the bottom, with purple punctuation, and curved upper part, in the shape of a helmet tilted forward.

It has a vivacious stem 15–40 centimetres (5.9–15.7 in) with a tuber of 1–4.5 by 0.6–3.5 centimetres (0.39 in–1.77 in × 0.24 in–1.38 in), from which rhizomes develop up to 9 by 1.5 centimetres (3.54 in × 0.59 in) and roots up to 9 centimetres (3.5 in). It has corded to hastado-sagittal leaves, with petioles of 5–34 by 0.1–0.9 centimetres (1.969 in–13.386 in × 0.039 in–0.354 in), sometimes with small purple spots, winged from the base; 5–12 by 3.5–10 centimetres (2.0 in–4.7 in × 1.4 in–3.9 in) limbus, cordiform to raised base; auricles 0.5–5.9 by 0.5–4 centimetres (0.20 in–2.32 in × 0.20 in–1.57 in), acute to rounded.

Influorescence is 0.7–2 by 1–2.4 centimetres (0.28 in–0.79 in × 0.39 in–0.94 in) with a stalk of 4–22.6 by 0.1–0.6 centimetres (1.575 in–8.898 in × 0.039 in–0.236 in), generally flexible and thin; upright spathe with the margins of the bottom joined together forming a closed tube with 2–6 centimetres (0.79–2.36 in) that ends in the form of a hood, smooth or papillary at the margin, with longitudinal nerve, purple in the apex becoming progressively less pigmented and paler in direction to the base. The spadix has a sterile terminal part, arched in the upper half and aclaved, included in the spathe or exserta.

Fruit is composed of multiple berries (2-8), greenish and not very fleshy, 5–15 by 5–14 millimetres (0.20 in–0.59 in × 0.20 in–0.55 in) and 1 to 12 seeds per berry.

Distribution and Habitat

Arisarum simorrhinum is native to most of Portugal, western Spain, Morocco and northwestern Algeria. It is a nitrophile and occurs on acidic and basic soils often on disturbed ground and on sandy soils in pasture, clearings in scrub and woodland, on road sides and ditch margins, cultivated land and among rocky outcrops from sea level up to 840 metres (2,760 ft) in altitude. Records from the Canary Islands, Balearic Islands, Madeira and Tunisia are erroneous due to taxonomic confusion with A. vulgare subsp. subexsertum.

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